Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Nike and Brand Loyalty

Nike and Brand Loyalty Nike is a great company which does worldwide marketing of high quality footwear, apparel, equipment, and accessory products. It is the largest seller of athletic footwear and athletic apparel in the world. Nike has been successful in building a brand image with its performance. From the early days, Nike has learnt the consumers need by listening to the need of athletes, sharing their true passion for running. When it comes to the brand loyalty, which is the consumer preference to buy a certain brand. According to (Tuominen, 1992) brand loyalty is nothing but the regular purchase of the same brand over time. According to the research 55% of the respondents stated that they were purchasing the same brand for the past 15 years. Consumers trust the brand and become loyal to the particular brand. This shows the brand loyalty of the consumers towards Nike. The survey results exemplify the loyalty of the brand. Most of the respondents are loyal with the specific branded products. Since years of time they have been buying the same brand because that specific brand has satisfied the consumers needs and has gained the credence in the brand name. The study also annotates the consumer preferences to buy the particular branded products over years. Some of the respondents stated that they have been purchasing Nike because the standards of quality are very high and comfort levels are very high. The elementary reason which the respondents say for buying the same brands for a long time is the perceived quality (Kalra Murthi, 2008). Perceived product quality is perhaps one of the most important constructs in marketing (Cronin Taylor, 1992). Undoubtedly, the belief that if the perceived quality is high it leads to frequent purchases which is the substratum of any business. It can be analysed from the research that when the respondents were asked to rank the characteristics from 1 to 8 as 1 being the lowest and 8 being the highest, which led them to choose Nike instead of any other brand, 25% of the respondents have ranked 8 for the characteristic quality. And the some of the comments made by the respondents are like Even though Nike is very expensive it has good quality and variety, the best quality I have ever seen is Nike. Nike has a very good quality in every of its products which cannot be seen in other brands which makes me to buy them. I buy the Nike products because of the quality. Quality is very good when compared with other brands. 38% of the respondents stated that Nike delivers the best quality when compared to other brands. This shows how consumers are associated with Nike in terms of quality. The brand association creates a positive attitude and feeling that makes a connection of the customer with the brand, especially when it comes to decision making. Marketers try to position their brands so that they are perceived by consumer to fit a distinctive niche in the marketplace a niche occupied by no other  product (Schiffman and Kanuk, 1994). Brand association is anything which is deep seated in customers mind about the brand. Brand associations are the attributes of brand which come into consumers mind when the brand is talked about. One of the respondent said that Nike has some uniqueness in it which makes me to purchase the products. Many of the consumers are associated with the Nike brand because of its variety, quality and its success. Even though brand association is formed on basis of the price at which the products (Aaker, 1991) are sold 3 to 4 respondents stated that even though Nike products are very expensive we purchase them for the quality and variety it has. Brand name plays an important role in the product sales and affects the consumers choice in selecting the products. The consumer is ready to pay excessive price if the brand name is paramount because they believe in the brand name (Marjit et al, 2007). During the survey 58% of the respondents replied that they consider the brand name when they go for shopping or when purchasing a product. The main reason for considering the brand name is that it provides the confidence and consumers feel more comfortable when they purchase the branded products in which they trust. Some brands are created in order to give consumers more experience than other brands. The most effective brand steals the consumers attention (Daryi, 2000). The results from the research illustrate the experience of the customer in buying the Nike brand. Generally consumers think of their past experience before purchasing the products. If they are satisfied with the product they will prefer to continue the purchase of same branded products. 55% of the respondents stated that they are purchasing the Nike brand for the past 15 years which shows their experience in purchasing the brand and 58% of the people are extremely satisfied with the quality of the Nike brand. If a consumers has a positive experience with the brand, it will help in developing the consumers trust in the company brand and will also have them as a loyal consumers. The results describe that the Nike brand have a strong space in consumers mind in terms of quality and uniqueness. It also shows that the consumers experie nce shows high consequence in their choice and buying decision. Brand awareness plays a vital role in consumers decision making process. Hoyer Brown (1990) say that people normally think to buy the brands they are familiar with and the brands on which they have confidence. 58% of the respondents stated that they choose the branded products because they are well associated with it and have good opinion on the particular branded products they buy. A brand to become successful, pricing strategy plays a vital role. Generally consumers compare one brand with the other with respect to price and quality. Daryi, 2000 says that if the price of product of their choice is more than the other branded product, consumers normally prefer the product which has lower price in the market. 6% of the respondents said that price is the factor which led them to choose Nike instead of any other brands. Due to the cost factor sometimes consumers may switch to other brands which replace the product which they need. Two of the respondents stated that even though the prices of Nike are very high when compared to other brands we purchase products of Nike because of the quality and varieties they offer. Further the results from the research shows that if the prices of the Nike products are little reduced there will be an increase in sales. This shows that the pricing strategy is very important for a company to survive in the market. By studying the customer behaviour, firms and organizations can be benefited by understanding some points like how consumers think, feel and decide to purchase which product to buy between lots of alternatives like brand and products available in the market, the factors which influence their buying decision. Consumer behaviour involves how the customers use the product as well as how they purchase the product. The overall study tells that the consumer behaviour is based on many factors like their buying behaviour, knowledge about the brand and some environmental factors like family, culture etc. During the research many things were observed regarding the consumer behaviour like frequency of purchase, their favourite brand, whether they consider brand into consideration when they purchase any product and how satisfied they are with the Nike product. It was observed that 29% of the respondents go for shopping once in a month and 28% of the respondents go twice in a month for shopping which depends upon their needs and their individual lifestyle. There was none of the respondents who said we never go for shopping and 10% of the consumers shop once in a year. Different consumers have different kinds of buying behaviour according to their needs and lifestyles. Only 13% of the respondents said that they dont buy the Nike products at all and 83% of the respondents stated that they purchase the Nike branded products. And the people who own the Nike items dont buy them frequently. Some of them buy once in a year and some of them once in a month. Some of them consider the quality, some of them design and some of them consider price which depends upon the mind-set of the individual. If marketers analyse the factors like price, quality, variety and brand name; they can influence purchase behaviour of a consumer.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Genetic Engineering :: Genetic Engineering Essays

At the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland, Dr. Keith Campbell, director of embryology at PPL therapeutics in Roslin, and his colleague Dr. Ian Wilmut worked together on a project to clone a sheep, Dolly, from adult cells. On February 22, 1997, they finally succeeded. Dolly was the only lamb born from 277 fusions of oocytes with udder cells. Wilmut says there were so many failures because it is difficult to ensure that the empty oocytes and the donor cell are at the same stage of the cell division cycle.To clone Dolly, basically scientists took an unfertilized egg cell, removed the nucleus, replaced it with cells taken from the organism to be cloned, put it into an empty egg cell which begins to develop as an embryo, and implanted this embryo into a mother, from which the clone was born.The fact that only 1 out of 277 attempts succeeded is a little scary when applied to human beings. If an attempt to clone a human led to that high of a death toll, then there would not be many supporters. According to Rifkin, in an extensive survey of all 106 clinical trials of experimental gene therapies conducted over the past five years involving more than 597 patients, a panel of experts convened by the NIG reported that "Clinical efficacy has not been definitively demonstrated at this time in any gene therapy protocol, despite anecdotal claims of successful therapy." (545). These results are also happening with people who are trying to get gene therapy. With these facts on the table, it would not be ideal to try to clone humans if cloning an animal took several hundred attempts and human gene therapy has had hundreds of failures as well.Humans are going way beyond their limits in the field of biotechnology in the world today. Until recently, these ideas were unheard of. Now with new technology, scientists are capable of changing an organism's genetic make-up. We are very eager to learn new things, however, this eagerness gets in the way of common sense all too often. As stated in Starr and Taggart's article, "we do not have the wisdom to bring about beneficial changes without causing great harm to ourselves or to the environment." (514). However, the naà ¯ve public may want to jump right into things, and scientists will not disagree.Scientists are messing with things that they should not be messing with.

Monday, August 19, 2019

History of New York Skyscrapers :: essays research papers fc

History of New York Skyscrapers The World Building – 1890 The World Building (also know as the Pulitzer Building) was originally owned by Joseph Pulitzer, publisher of the New York World. Its architect was George B. Post and construction began October 10th, 1889. It was opened on December 10th, 1890, and was the first building in New York to surpass the 284 feet. The New York World Building was the tallest of several high-rise structures built for major newspapers in the late 19th century. The number of stories is disputed; estimates range from the 26 stories claimed by the World to the 16 or 18 suggested by recent scholars. The World Building was 309 feet tall and was demolished in 1955 for the expanded automobile entrance to the Brooklyn Bridge. Manhattan Life Insurance Co. Building 1894 The Manhattan Life Insurance Company Building was constructed in 1893 and was opened in 1894. In 1892 the Manhattan Life Insurance Company held a competition for its headquarters, selecting architects Kimball and Thompson as the winners. The structure was intended to be the tallest in New York. The building featured a few engineering firsts designed by engineer Charles Sooysmith. The interior was heated and cooled through one of the first uses of electric ventilation. Manhattan Life was demolished in 1930 to make way for the Irving Trust Bank’s headquarters, the masterpiece One Wall Street. St. Paul Building – 1898 This building was named after the historic St. Paul's Chapel located across the street. The St. Paul Building was constructed in 1895 and was 315 feet (96 meters) tall. The building was opened in1898 and its General contractor was Robinson & Wallace. The St Paul Building was called by one critic of the time "perhaps the least attractive design of all New York's skyscrapers." The Park Row – 1899 Building originally owned by William Mills Ivins, the head of investment syndicate. The building was constructed in 1896 and took three years to complete. The building is 386 feet (118 meters) tall and its architect is R.H. Robertson. The building is 30 stories tall, the interior could accommodate up to 1,000 offices, and its engineer was Nathaniel Roberts. The Park Row Building still stands today facing City Hall Park in lower Manhattan. Singer Building – 1908 The Singer building was construced in 1906 and opened in 1908. The first design by architect Ernest Flagg was a thirty-five story tower, but the company soon decided to nearly double that height with a tower of almost 600 feet.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Al capone Essay -- essays papers

Al capone There have been a lot of things written and said about Al Capone in newspapers and magazine articles, books, and movies that is completely untrue. One of the most common fictions is that like many gangsters of that era, he was born in Italy. Absolutely not true. This amazing criminal was strictly domestic, taking the Italian criminal society and fashioning it into a modern American criminal enterprise. Certainly many Italian immigrants, like immigrants of all nationalities, frequently came to the New World with very few assets. Many of these immigrants were peasants trying to escape the lack of opportunity in Italy. When they came to the American port cities they often ended up as laborers because of the inability to speak and write English and their lack of professional skills. This was not the case with the family of Al Capone. Gabriele Capone was one of 43,000 Italians who arrived in the U.S. in 1893, from Naples, Italy. He was a barber by trade and could read and write his native language. Gabriele, who was thirty years old, brought with him his pregnant twenty-seven-year-old wife Teresina, his two-year-old son Vincenzo and his infant son Raffaele. Unlike many Italian immigrants he did not owe anyone for his passage over. His plan was to do whatever work was necessary until he could open his own barbershop. Along with thousands of other Italians, the Capone family moved to Brooklyn near the Brooklyn Navy Yard. Gabriele's ability to read and write allowed him to get a job in a grocery store until he was able to open his barbershop. Her fourth son and the first to be born and conceived in the New World was born January 17, 1899. His name was Alphonse, also known as Al. Al came from a large family and was the fourth oldest of nine children. As a child, Capone was very wise when it came to living on the streets of New York. He had a clever mind when it came to street smarts. As far as school goes, Al was near illiterate. Education was not a top priority for immigrants. At the age of five in 1904, he went to Public School 7 on Adams Street. The school system was deeply prejudiced against them and did little to encourage any interest in higher education, while the immigrant parents expected their children to leave school as soon as they were old enough to work. At about the age of ele ven Capone became a member of a juveni... ... was released to the care of his family. For his remaining years, Al slowly deteriorated in the quiet splendor of his Palm Island palace. Mae stuck by him until January 25, 1947 when he had a massive brain hemorrhage and died. His body was removed from his estate in Florida and transferred back to the seen of his underworld triumph, Chicago. The family held a private ceremony at the cemetery, but were afraid of grave robbers taking the body so they reburied Capone in a secret place in Mt. Carmel Cemetery. In his forty-eight years, Capone had left his mark on the rackets and on Chicago, and more than anyone else he had demonstrated the stupidity of Prohibition; in the process he also made a fortune. Beyond that, he captured and held the imagination of the American public as few public figures ever do. Capone's fame should have been a passing sensation, but instead it stuck permanently in the consciousness of Americans. He redefined the concept of crime into an organized vent ure modeled on corporate business. As he was at pains to point out, many of his crimes were relative; bootlegging was only criminal because a certain set of laws decreed it, and then the laws were changed.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Elements of the Gothic Genre

The gothic novel was invented almost single-handedly by Horace Walpole, whose The Castle of Otranto (1764) contains essentially all the elements that constitute the genre. Walpole's novel was imitated not only in the eighteenth century and not only in the novel form, but it has influenced writing, poetry, and even film making up to the present day. It introduced the term â€Å"gothic romance† to the literary world. Due to its inherently supernatural, surreal and sublime elements, it has maintained a dark and mysterious appeal. However, the roots of the Gothic? precede the Gothic? works of Horace Walpole.The focus on the grotesque in the medieval period (visible especially in the paintings and architecture of the period) provides a key backdrop against which Gothic must be read, as do the violent and often grotesque tragedies written for the Elizabethan and Jacobean theatre, with their detailed, almost surgical exploration of the supernatural, vice, corruption, imprisonment, br utality and sexuality, all of which were to provide the very substance of the Gothic authors. (Note particularly ‘Macbeth? and ‘Dr Faustus?) Gothic literature is devoted primarily to stories of horror, the fantastic, and the â€Å"darker† supernatural forces.These forces often represent the â€Å"dark side† of human nature— irrational or destructive desires. Gothic literature derives its name from its similarities to the Gothic medieval cathedrals, which feature a majestic, unrestrained architectural style with often savage or grotesque ornamentation (the word â€Å"Gothic† derives from â€Å"Goth,† the name of one of the barbaric Germanic tribes that invaded the Roman Empire). The Gothic genre (in both literature and architecture) is therefore associated with savagery and barbarism.Generally speaking, gothic literature delves into the macabre nature of humanity in its quest to satisfy mankind's intrinsic desire to plumb the depths of t error. The key features of gothic texts are: 1) the appearance of the supernatural, 2) the psychology of horror and/or terror, 3) the poetics of the sublime, 4) a sense of mystery and dread 5) the appealing hero/villain, 6) the distressed heroine, and 7) strong moral closure (usually at least). ELEMENTS OF THE GOTHIC IN TEXTS 1. Setting in a castle or haunted house. The action takes place in and around an old castle, sometimes seemingly abandoned, sometimes occupied.The castle often contains secret passages, trap doors, secret rooms, dark or hidden staircases, and possibly ruined sections. The castle may be near or connected to caves, which lend their own haunting flavour with their branchings, claustrophobia, and mystery. (Translated into modern filmmaking, the setting might be in an old house or mansion–or even a new house–where unusual camera angles, sustained close ups during movement, and darkness or shadows create the same sense of claustrophobia and entrapment. ) It is usually a dwelling that is inhabited by or visited regularly by a ghost or other supposedly supernatural being.Example: Horace Walpole's The Castle of Otranto. Walpole's novel first introduced to gothic literature its single most influential convention, the haunted castle. The castle is the main setting of the story and the centre of activity. Cemetery /Graveyard. A cemetery defines a place which is used for the burial of the dead. Cemeteries are widely used in Gothic Literature as oftentimes frightening places where revenance can occur. Catacombs are especially evocative Gothic spaces because they enable the living to enter below ground a dark labyrinth resonating with the presences and mysteries of the dead. . The Weather is used in a number of ways and forms, some of these being: Mist – This convention in Gothic Literature is often used to obscure objects (this can be related to the sublime) by reducing visibility or to prelude the insertion of a terrifying person or thing; Storms – These frequently accompany important events. Flashes of lightning accompany revelation; thunder and downpours prefigure the appearance of a character or the beginning of a significant event (eg thunder precedes the entrance of the witches in ‘Macbeth?;Sunlight – represents goodness and pleasure; it also has the power to bestow these upon characters. 3. An atmosphere of mystery and suspense. (or a sense of dread) The work is pervaded by a threatening feeling, a fear enhanced by the unknown. Often the plot itself is built around a mystery, such as unknown parentage, a disappearance, or some other inexplicable event eg. Ghosts walking or a painting coming to life. There may be an ancient prophecy connected with the castle or its inhabitants. It is usually obscure, partial or confusing.This serves to captivate the reader and encourage further reading. The atmosphere may also be seen acting upon the protagonists in texts, influencing them by excitin g their curiosity or fear. 4. Claustrophobia / Entrapment & Imprisonment: A favourite horror device of the Gothic finds a person confined or trapped, such as being shackled to a floor or hidden away in some dark cell or cloister. This sense of there being no way out contributes to the claustrophobic psychology of Gothic space. It consists of an abnormal dread of being confined in a close or narrow space.Often ttributed to actual physical imprisonment or entrapment, claustrophobia can also figure more generally as an indicator of the victim's sense of helplessness or horrified mental awareness of being enmeshed in some dark, inscrutable destiny 5. The supernatural may be intrinsic to the plot. This is generally in the form of some kind of supernatural being or object, such as a vampire, witch, devil or ghost, which is frightening due to its refusal to adhere to the laws of nature, God or man. In ‘Macbeth? there are three witches. Dr Faustus communicates with a demon and indirec tly with Lucifer.All of ‘Paradise Lost? involves the supernatural. 6. Dreams, omens, portents, visions. Dreaming is characterised as a form of mental activity that takes place during the act of sleep. Dreams invoke strong emotions within the dreamer, such as ecstasy, joy and terror. Dreams dredge up these deep emotions and premonitions that reflect tellingly upon the dreamer, what one might conceal during waking hours but what emerges in sleep to haunt and arouse the dreamer. It is most likely due to this heightened emotional state that dreams are used so often within Gothic Literature.By invoking dream states within their characters, authors are able to illustrate emotions on a more unmediated and, oftentimes, terrifying level. Dreams reveal to the reader what the character is often too afraid to realise about himself or herself. Dreaming also has an ancient relation with the act of foretelling wherein the future is glimpsed in the dream state. Perhaps the most famous Gothic example of significant dreams occurs in Shelley's ‘Frankenstein? after Frankenstein ‘awakes' his creature: he falls into a dream state that begins with his kissing of Elizabeth, his love.However, this kiss changes her in the most drastic way as she transforms into the rotting corpse of Caroline, Victor's dead mother. Upon awakening from this horrifying dream, Victor finds himself staring into the face of the monster he has created. Interpretations of this dream lead to explorations of Frankenstein's psyche, relational ability and sexuality. A character may have a disturbing dream vision, or some phenomenon may be seen as a portent of coming events. For example, if the statue of the lord of the manor falls over, it may portend his death.In modern fiction, a character might see something (a shadowy figure stabbing another shadowy figure) and think that it was a dream. This might be thought of as an â€Å"imitation vision. † Banquo in ‘Macbeth? dreams of the â €˜weird sisters?. Lady Macbeth?s suppressed guilt emerges when she is seen sleepwalking. 7. The stock characters of Gothic fiction include tyrants, villains, bandits, maniacs, Byronic heroes, persecuted maidens, femmes fatales, madwomen, magicians, vampires, werewolves, monsters, demons, angel, fallen angel, the beauty and the beast, revenants, ghosts, perambulating skeletons, the Wandering Jew, and the Devil himself. .Villain-Hero (Satanic, Promethean, Byronic Hero) The villain of a story who either 1) poses as a hero at the beginning of the story or 2) simply possesses enough heroic characteristics (charisma, sympathetic past, etc) so that either the reader or the other characters see the villain-hero as more than a simple charlatan or bad guy. Three closely related types exist: Satanic Hero: a Villain-Hero whose nefarious deeds and justifications of them make him a more interesting character than the rather bland good hero.Example: The origin of this prototype comes from Roman tic misreading of Milton's Paradise Lost, whose Satan poets like Blake and Shelley regarded as a far more compelling figure than the moralistic God of Book III of the epic. Gothic examples: Beckford's Vathek, Radcliffe's Montoni, and just about any vampire. Promethean: a Villain-Hero who has done good but only by performing an over-reaching or rebellious act. Prometheus from ancient Greek mythology saved mankind but only after stealing fire and ignoring Zeus' order that mankind should be kept in a state of subjugation.Mary Shelley's Frankenstein is tellingly subtitled the â€Å"Modern Prometheus. † Consider whether Dr Faustus is a Promethean hero. (The vaulting arches and spires of Gothic cathedrals reach wildly to the sky as if the builders were trying to grasp the heavens , an ambition for the eternal that is likewise expressed in many works of Gothic literature (consider Manfred's quest for supernatural power in Byron's poem, or Frankenstein's quest to become godlike by cr eating life or Dr. Faustus pact – offering his soul for 24 years of power).Byronic Hero: a later variation of the â€Å"antithetically mixed† Villain-Hero. Aristocratic, suave, moody, handsome, solitary, secretive, brilliant, cynical, sexually intriguing, and nursing a secret wound, he is renowned because of his fatal attraction for female characters and readers and continues to occasion debate about gender issues. Example: Byron's Childe Harold and, more gothically, Manfred are the best examples, but this darkly attractive and very conflicted male figure surfaces everywhere in the 19th and 20th century gothic eg Heathcliff or Wilde?s Dorian Gray.Byron himself was described as â€Å"mad, bad and dangerous to know. † The Byronic hero in literature and life: A. Robin Hood B. Richard III C. Iago D. Faust/ Dr. Faustus E. Milton's Satan F. Victor Frankenstein G. Frankenstein's Creature H. Dracula I. Byron?s Manfred J. Cain K. Lara L. Conrad M. Childe Harold N. Byron, Shelley O. Ambrosio P. Peter Quint Q. Miss Jessel R. Stalin S. Hitler T. The Unabomber U. Prometheus 9. The Pursued Protagonist This refers to the idea of a pursuing force that relentlessly acts in a severely negative manner on a character.This persecution often implies the notion of some sort of a curse or other form of terminal and utterly unavoidable damnation, a notion that usually suggests a return or â€Å"hangover† of traditional religious ideology to chastise the character for some real or imagined wrong against the moral order. The Wandering Jew is perhaps the archetypically pursued/pursuing protagonist. –Drew McCray 10. Pursuit of the Heroine This is the pursuit of a virtuous and idealistic (and usually poetically inclined) young woman by a villain, normally portrayed as a wicked, older but still potent aristocrat.While in many early Gothic novels such a chase occurs across a Mediterranean forest and/or through a subterranean labyrinth, the pursuit of the he roine is by no means limited to these settings. This pursuit represents a threat to the young lady's ideals and morals (usually meaning her virginity), to which the heroine responds in the early works with a passive courage in the face of danger; later gothic heroines progressively become more active and occasionally effective in their attempts to escape this pursuit and indict patriarchy. eg. Angela Carter?s ‘The Bloody Chamber. ?Women in distress. As an appeal to the pathos and sympathy of the reader, the female characters often face events that leave them fainting, terrified, screaming, and/or sobbing. A lonely, pensive, and oppressed heroine is often the central figure of the novel, so her sufferings are even more pronounced and the focus of attention. The women suffer all the more because they are often abandoned, left alone (either on purpose or by accident), and have no protector at times.Women threatened by a powerful, impulsive, tyrannical male. One or more male chara cters has the power, as king, lord of the manor, father, or guardian, to demand that one or more of the female characters do something intolerable. The woman may be commanded to marry someone she does not love (it may even be the powerful male himself), or commit a crime. 11. The Outsider: The one theme that cuts through virtually all Gothic is that of the â€Å"outsider,† embodied in wanderers like Frankenstein's creature.Gothic fiction is concerned with the outsider, whether the stationary figure who represses his difference, or the wandering figure who seeks for some kind of salvation, or else the individual who for whatever reason- moves entirely outside the norm. In any event, he is beyond the moderating impulses in society, and he must be punished for his transgression. He is gloomy and melancholy, full of self-pity and self-hatred. Like Cain, he is the perpetual outsider, marked by his appearance, doomed to wander the four corners of the earth, alone and reviled.It may be argued that Frankenstein himself becomes an outsider as he grows more and more like his creation. . While the society at large always appears bourgeois in its culture and morality, the Gothic outsider is a counterforce driven by strange longings and destructive needs. While everyone else appears sane, he is insane; while everyone else appears bound by legalities, he is trying to snap the pitiless constrictions of the law; while everyone else seems to lack any peculiarities of taste or behaviour, he feels only estrangement, sick longings, terrible surges of power and devastation.Take for example, Heathcliff in ‘Wuthering Heights?. 12. Possession The popularity of belief in demonic possession seems to have originated within Christian Theology during the Middle Ages. During this time, Christians lived in fear concerning the war being waged between God and the Devil over every mortal soul. Hence, this fear of possession seemed to culminate into an act that could be viewed by t he mortal eye. This act is defined as the forced possession of a mortal body by the Devil or one of his demons.There are two types of possession and either can be voluntary or involuntary. Voluntary possession seems to involve a willing exchange in the form of some compact between evil spirit and mortal, often involving wealth, power or goods (eg. The pact Faustus makes); involuntary possession occurs when the devil randomly selects an unwitting host. The two types of possession consist of the transference of the Devil or demon directly into the mortal body or the sending of the Devil or demon into the body by a third party, usually a mortal dabbler in the dark arts.Following the act, the possessed is said to show many symptoms including abnormal strength, personality changes, fits, convulsions, bodily odours resembling sulphur, lewd and lascivious actions, the ability to levitate, the ability to speak in tongues or the ability to foretell future events. Many religions acknowledge t he act of possession still today, most notably the Catholic Church. There seem to be three ways in which to end a possession. 13. Revenance This is the return of the dead to terrorise or to settle some score with the living.4. Revenge Revenge is characterized as the act of repaying someone for a harm that the person has caused; the idea also points back generically to one of the key influences upon Gothic literature: the revenge tragedies of Elizabethan and Jacobean drama. Revenge may be enacted upon a loved one, a family member, a friend, an object or even an area. Within Gothic Literature, revenge is notably prominent and can be enacted by or upon mortals as well as spirits.Revenge can take many forms, such as harm to body, harm to loved ones, and harm to family. The most Gothic version of revenge in Gothic Literature is the idea that it can be a guiding force in the revenance of the dead. 15. Unreliable Narrator A narrator tells a story and determines the story?s point of view. A n unreliable narrator, however, does not understand the importance of a particular situation or makes an incorrect conclusion or assumption about an event that he/she witnesses.An important issue in determining the The Turn of the Screw. 16. Multiple Narrative/Spiral Narrative Method The story is frequently told through a series of secret manuscripts or multiple tales, each revealing a deeper secret, so the narrative gradually spirals inward toward the hidden truth. The narrator is often a firstperson narrator compelled to tell the story to a fascinated or captive listener (representing the captivating power of forbidden knowledge). (Note ‘Wuthering Heights?) 17. High, even overwrought emotion.The narration may be highly sentimental, and the characters are often overcome by anger, sorrow, surprise, and especially, terror. Characters suffer from raw nerves and a feeling of impending doom. Crying and emotional speeches are frequent. Breathlessness and panic are common. In the fi lmed gothic, screaming is common. 18. The Sublime: The definition of this key term has long been a contested term, but the idea of the sublime is essential to an understanding of Gothic poetics and, especially, the attempt to defend or justify the literature of terror.Put basically (and this really is basic – a fuller understanding of the Sublime would be useful to students of Wordsworth or any Gothic Literature), the Sublime is an overpowering sense of the greatness and power of nature, which can be uplifting, aweinspiring and terrifying, caused by experience of beauty, vastness or grandeur. Sublime moments lead us to consider the place of humanity in the universe, and the power exhibited in the world. 19. Darkness as intrinsic to humanity:Generally speaking, gothic literature delves into the macabre nature of humanity in its quest to satiate mankind's intrinsic desire to plumb the depths of terror. 0. Necromancy This is the black art of communicating with the dead. This is usually done to obtain information about the future, but can also be used for other purposes, such as getting the dead to perform deeds of which humans are not capable. The conjurer often stood in a circle, such as a pentagram, in order to protect himself from the dead spirit, yet he was often overpowered by the spirit. Examples: The most famous examples of necromancy can be found in literary renditions of the Faust legend, from Marlowe to Johann Wolfgang von Goethe to Byron with his Manfred.In these works, Faust not only speaks with the devil in order to strike a deal but necromantically invokes various dead, famous figures from the past for his amusement and edification. 21. Blood -This is a prominent symbol in Gothic works often intimating the paradox of the human condition; blood can represent both life and death, or both guilt (e. g. , murder) and innocence (e. g. , redemptive blood). Consider references to blood in ‘Macbeth?, Byron's Manfred and Mary Shelley's Frankenste in. 22.Marriage as Resolution: The importance of marriage in this scheme cannot be overstated. Not only does movement toward matrimony in the Gothic's present trigger the appearance of the buried past, but that buried past itself always contains information tied to the institutions of matrimony or family interest. 23. Sadism : The word â€Å"sadism† was coined to describe the writings of Donatien-AlphonseFrancois, the Marquis de Sade. Sadism is a sexual perversion where one person gains gratification by inflicting physical or mental pain on others.It can also mean a delight in torment or excessive cruelty. (Heathcliff in ‘Wuthering Heights? / or the husband in ‘The Bloody Chamber?. 24. Strong Moral Closure: If de Sade is to be believed, the Gothic genre arose as a response to the brutality and bloodiness of Romantic society, and it as part of this response that Gothic fiction usually contains a strong moral. 25. The metonymy of gloom and horror. Metonymy is a subt ype of metaphor, in which something (like rain) is used to stand for something else (like sorrow).For example, the film industry likes to use metonymy as a quick shorthand, so we often notice that it is raining in funeral scenes. Note that the following metonymies for â€Å"doom and gloom† all suggest some element of mystery, danger, or the supernatural. wind, especially howling doors grating on rusty hinges footsteps approaching lights in abandoned rooms characters trapped in a room ruins of buildings thunder and lightning rain, especially blowing sighs, moans, howls, eerie sounds clanking chains gusts of wind blowing out lights doors suddenly slamming shut aying of distant dogs (or wolves? ) crazed laughter 26. The vocabulary of the gothic. The constant use of the appropriate vocabulary set creates the atmosphere of the gothic.Here as an example are some of the words (in several categories) that help make up the vocabulary of the gothic in The Castle of Otranto: Mystery dia bolical, enchantment, ghost, goblins, haunted, infernal, magic, magician, miracle, necromancer, omens, ominous, portent, preternatural, prodigy, prophecy, secret, sorcerer, spectre, spirits, strangeness, talisman, vision Fear, Terror, or Sorrow fflicted, affliction, agony, anguish, apprehensions, apprehensive, commiseration, concern, despair, dismal, dismay, dread, dreaded, dreading, fearing, frantic, fright, frightened, grief, hopeless, horrid, horror, lamentable, melancholy, miserable, mournfully, panic, sadly, scared, shrieks, sorrow, sympathy, tears, terrible, terrified, terror, unhappy, wretched Surprise alarm, amazement, astonished, astonishment, shocking, staring, surprise, surprised, thunderstruck, wonder Haste anxious, breathless, flight, frantic, hastened, hastily, impatience, impatient, impatiently, impetuosity, precipitately, running, sudden, suddenlyAnger anger, angrily, choler, enraged, furious, fury, incense, incensed, provoked, rage, raving, resentment, temper, wrath , wrathful, wrathfully Largeness enormous, gigantic, giant, large, tremendous, vast 27. Elements of Romance In addition to the standard gothic aspects, many gothic novels contain elements of romance as well. Elements of romance include these: Powerful love. Heart stirring, often sudden, emotions create a life or death commitment. Many times this love is the first the character has felt with this overwhelming power. Uncertainty of reciprocation. What is the beloved thinking?Is the lover's love returned or not? Unreturned love. Someone loves in vain (at least temporarily). Later, the love may be returned. Tension between true love and father's control, disapproval, or choice. Most often, the father of the woman disapproves of the man she loves. Lovers parted. Some obstacle arises and separates the lovers, geographically or in some other way. One of the lovers is banished, arrested, forced to flee, locked in a dungeon, or sometimes, disappears without explanation. Or, an explanation ma y be given (by the person opposing the lovers' being together) that later turns out to be false.Gothicism: In literary criticism, this refers to works characterised by a taste for the medieval or morbidly attractive. A gothic novel prominently features elements of horror, the supernatural, gloom, and violence: clanking chains, terror, charnel houses, ghosts, medieval castles, and mysteriously slamming doors. The term â€Å"gothic novel† is also applied to novels that lack elements of the traditional Gothic setting but that create a similar atmosphere of terror or dread. Mary Shelley's Frankenstein is perhaps the best-known English work of this kind. Grotesque 1) This term originated from oddly shaped ornaments found within Roman dwellings, or grottoes, during the first century. From a literary standpoint, this term implies a mutation of the characters, plants and/or animals. This mutation transforms the normal features and/or behaviours into veritable extremes that are meant to be frightening and/or disturbingly comic (Cornwell 273. (2) The term grotesque also defines a work in which two separate modes, comedy and tragedy, are mixed. The result is a disturbing fiction wherein comic circumstances prelude horrific tragedy and vice versa.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

Introduction The range of Infrared region Is 12800- 10 cm-l. It can be divided into near-infrared region (12800 – 4000 crn-ll mid-infrared region (4000 – 200 crnl ) and far-infrared region (50 † 1000 cm-l). scientists have established various ways to utilize infrared light. Infrared absorption spectroscopy is the method which scientists use to determine the structures of molecules with the molecules' characteristic absorption of infrared radiation. Infrared spectrum is molecular vibrational spectrum.When exposed to Infrared radiation, sample molecules selectively absorb radiation of pecific wavelengths which causes the change of dipole moment of sample molecules. Consequently, the vibrational energy levels of sample molecules transfer from ground state to excited state. The frequency of the absorption peak is determined by the vibrational energy gap. The number of absorption peaks is related to the number of vibrational freedom of the molecule. The intensity of ab sorption peaks is related to the change of dipole moment and the possibility of the transition of energy levels.Therefore, by analyzing the infrared spectrum, one can readily obtain abundant structure information of a molecule. Most molecules are infrared active except for several homonuclear diatomic molecules such as 02, N2 and C12 due to the zero dipole change in the vibration and rotation of these molecules Concept: Fourier transform spectroscopy Is a less Intuitive way to obtain the same Information. Rather than shining a monochromatic beam of light at the sample, this technique shines a beam containing many frequencies of light at once, and measures how much of that beam Is absorbed by the sample.Next, the beam Is modified to contain a different combination of frequencies, giving a second data point. This process is repeated many times. Afterwards, a computer takes all these data and works backwards to Infer what the absorption Is at each wavelength The beam described above is generated by starting with a broadband light source† one containing the full spectrum of wavelengths to be measured. The light shines into a Michelson interferometer†a certain configuration of mirrors, one of which is moved by a motor. As this mirror moves, each wavelength of light in the beam is periodically blocked. ransmitted, blocked, transmitted. by the Interferometer, due to wave interference. Different wavelengths are modulated at different rates, so that at each moment, the beam coming out of the interferometer has a different spectrum. Fourier Transform of Interferogram to Spectrum The interferogram is a function of time and the values outputted by this function of time are said to make up the time domain. The time domain Is Fourier transformed to get a frequency domain, which is deconvoluted to product a spectrum Step 1: The first step is sample preparation. The standard method to prepare solid sample for FTIR spectrometer is to use KBr.About 2 mg of sample an d 200 mg KBr re dried and ground. The particle size should be unified and less than two micrometers. Then, the mixture is squeezed to form transparent pellets which can be measured directly. For liquids with high boiling point or viscous solution, it can be added in between two NaCl pellets. Then the sample is fixed in the cell by skews and measured. For volatile liquid sample, it is dissolved in CS2 or CC14 to form 10% solution. Then the solution is injected into a liquid cell for measurement. Gas sample needs to be measured in a gas cell with two KBr windows on each side. The gas cell should first be vacuumed.Then the sample can be introduced to the gas cell for measurement. Step 2: The second step is getting a background spectrum by collecting an interferogram and its subsequent conversion to frequency data by inverse Fourier transform. We obtain the background spectrum because the solvent in which we place our sample will have traces of dissolved gases as well as solvent molecul es that contribute information that are not our sample. The background spectrum will contain information about the species of gases and solvent molecules, which may then be subtracted away from our sample spectrum in order to gain nformation about Just the sample.Figure 6 shows an example of an FTIR background spectrum. Figure 6. Background IR spectrum The background spectrum also takes into account several other factors related to the instrument performance, which includes information about the source, interferometer, detector, and the contribution of ambient water (note the two irregular groups of lines at about 3600 cm-l and about 1600 cm-l in Figure 6) and carbon dioxide (note the doublet at 2360 cm-l and sharp spike at 667 cm-l in Figure 6) present in the optical bench.Step 3: Next, we collect a single-beam spectrum of he sample, which will contain absorption bands from the sample as well as the background (gaseous or solvent). Step 4: The ratio between the single-beam sample s pectrum and the single beam background spectrum gives the spectrum of the sample (Figure 7). Advantages: Speed: Because all of the frequencies are measured simultaneously, most measurements by FT-IR are made in a matter of seconds rather than several minutes.This is sometimes referred to as the Felgett Advantage. Sensitivity: Sensitivity is dramatically improved with FT-IR for many reasons. The detectors employed are uch more sensitive, the optical throughput is much higher (referred to as the enable the coaddition of several scans in order to reduce the random measurement noise to any desired level (referred to as signal averaging). ? Mechanical Simplicity: The moving mirror in the interferometer is the only continuously moving part in the instrument. Thus, there is very little possibility of mechanical breakdown. Internally Calibrated: These instruments employ a HeNe laser as an internal wavelength calibration standard (referred to as the Connes Advantage). These instruments are s elf-calibratingand never need to be calibrated by the user.

A Different Kind of Leadership

When The Economist magazine recently asked 180 leaders what the major influence on future organizations would be, two-thirds of them said it would be teams and groups. Clearly, the John Wayne model of leadership won't work. What is needed today is a different kind of leadership. People who think they can do it by themselves are somewhat deluded. Despite these kinds of statements the cult figure of the Chief Executive Officer still exists. They are enshrined, and probably celebrated too much. This is partly an American phenomenon. However throughout Europe there are beginning to be reactions against these icons for companies and these are ominous signs for the future of figureheads. Groups, teams, communities, partnerships, stakeholders, colleagues, collaborators signal the end of the â€Å"Great Man,† the death of the John Wayne myth. As the business world becomes more complex and interdependent, executives cannot afford to lead in isolation. Instead, they must tap into the collective knowledge and expertise of their colleagues by creating real teamwork at top levels of the organization. They need to build truly effective leadership teams. Successful management in today's society are forever trying to seek out the most competent individuals to employ in specific roles within a business environment. The criteria on which an individual is selected are widely recognised as the common attributes of a leader. These qualities would include; intelligence, forcefulness, sensitivity, patience, decisiveness, the person would be reflective and dynamic, a good communicator as well as being a good listener. The list of desirable traits continues to describe the perfect leader-manager who would be effective and most probably flawless. In reality this person could not exist, simply because many of the characteristics seem to conflict with one another. It is unlikely that someone could be both forceful and particularly sensitive. The inability of a single individual to possess all the skills that are sought after, presents the opportunity for the development of a team that certainly could. Teams also have the advantage that if a single member of a team is unavailable, then the productivity of the team may not be impacted significantly, whereas if a single person had full responsibility for a task and then was taken ill for example, any progress due to be made on the task would be halted. Another problem with focussing on training individuals to a high level and therefore becoming somewhat reliant on that person is that, if that person decided to leave to take a position with a competitor or to take early retirement to spend time with their spouse then the business is left trying to adjust for the loss. By focussing on teams the business is somewhat less exposed to these potential problems. However the development of teams to provide protection against competitors ‘poaching' personnel, has become less effective, especially in the service industries. An example of this kind of activity occurring was seen in November 1999 when a team of Merrill Lynch & Co. telecom analysts defected to Credit Suisse First Boston (CSFB). This forced Merrill to reshuffle its depleted research effort just as the firm's telecom bankers were positioning to land the mandate on what could be the biggest initial public offering in history. The highly regarded telecom analysts Dan Reingold and Mark Kastan left Merrill for CSFB on 22nd November, taking with them a group of five other analysts – almost Merrill's entire U. S. telecom research team. With such an emphasis on the formulation of effective self-managed teams, the question of whether leadership is actually required arises. It has been suggested that to organize genius and to have a great group, the fine art of herding cats must learnt. This analogy is used to demonstrate the difficult skill of persuading members within a team to carry out tasks they may not particularly want to, and feel good about doing it. This ‘soft skill† is very important if a group is to have a member in a leading capacity. Some leaders have managed to succeed without having great people skills. Examples include Steve Jobs at Macintosh Computers, Walt Disney, Kelly Johnson at Lockheed's Skunk Works, and John Andrew Rice at Black Mountain College. In fact they have been described as having herded their cats with whips; and yet still produced phenomenal results. Leaders typically provide direction and meaning that resonate in the heart, soul and mind. But many leaders of great groups are abrasive, if not downright arrogant. Another analogy used to describe these people is that they are all alchemists. They are creating something out of nothing. They are creating something magical. They are creating an object of enchantment. An explanation given for why these team leaders were obnoxious at times was that when believing that they were involved in a group that would change the world, they could be afforded the opportunity of being a â€Å"son-of-a-bitch† for a time. If a group can be created that thinks they can â€Å"make a dent in the universe,† as Steve Jobs told the team that created the Macintosh computer, one's personal foibles, losing one's temper, one's style become less important. If the team feels transported, and part of the excitement, the thrill and the electrifying feeling of doing something that nobody has ever done before, arrogance on behalf of the leader can be excused. Undoubtedly this aggressive style of team leadership producing outstanding results is the exception to most group situations. The charismatic nature of the people involved probably had more to do with the eventual result rather than the manner in which they lead. Charisma is intangible, difficult to assess, and cannot be taught, yet can override all learnt skills of good team leading. However there have been studies that suggest that the personality of the leader may adversely affect the team†s performance. Mary Fontaine, head of the Hay/McBer's competency practice, a U. S. management consulting group, carried out a study that found that team leaders with a variety of managerial styles-authoritative, affiliative, democratic and coaching can be successful as long as they encourage dialogues. However team leaders with a coercive managerial style were found to be far less successful at promoting dialogues. In contrast to the success of the individuals and their organisations mentioned earlier it was found that it wasn't the best and the brightest who excelled. â€Å"Sucking the oxygen out of the room with excessive charisma or with an intimidating intellect and self-confidence was often detrimental to team efforts,† Fontaine says. â€Å"The truly outstanding leaders frequently were those whose contributions were less visible, who worked behind the scenes to create structures and arrange for organizational supports that made it easier for their teams to excel. There seems to be a threshold level of team skills required to be a competent leader, and above this level charisma can either make an average leader-manager into someone special or more likely hinder the groups performance. The ideal that leaders are not born, but make themselves supports this theory. A person may develop to be charismatic, however in order to grow as a leader they must learn the necessary people or ‘soft† skills. These are the hardest skills to learn. They are the things that will make the biggest difference in organizations. Bob Haas, CEO of Levi Strauss, has said the hard skills are not getting the pants out the door. The hard skills are creating the work force that will be motivated to be productive. So, the soft skills are the hardest skills. It seems that there is still a place for leaders within teams, but not in the traditional sense. Leaders are purveyors of hope who suspend disbelief in their groups. They represent the group†s needs and aspirations. They don't know that a task cannot be achieved. Most individuals are hungry spirits, and any leader who can dangle a dream before them usually gets their attention and the collective talents within a team make that dream a reality. Today the one thing that the majority of professional people want is to be inspired. For many years the qualities of individuals have been studied, and the successful characteristics copied. However the successful features of a management team are less well understood. A team has proved more difficult to study than a single person. However there has been recognition of some of the main elements of what makes one team more successful than another. A number of studies have been carried out to try to depict the foundations of teamwork and the complimentary relationships between members. The format of the team and the relationships within seem indicative to whether the team is successful. It is not necessarily the ability of individuals within the team. Given a free choice of members and the need to form a high-powered management team to solve complex problems, it would seem sensible to select members who have sharp analytical minds. This would suggest creating a team composed entirely of intellectually clever people. These types of people would be equipped for coping with major projects and big decisions. Creating a ‘Think-Tank' would initially appear to be the best solution for high profile managerial teams. However, studies carried out by Belbin concluded that the grouping of highly intellectual and similarly analytically minded people within a team in general does not produce the expected high performance. Belbin championed the result as â€Å"Apollo Syndrome†, named after the team consisting of the intellectually clever people that carried out the executive management exercises he designed. The analysis of these highly intellectual ‘Apollo' teams illustrated some of the flaws within the group interaction. A large proportion of each individual's time was engaged in trying to persuade the other members of the team to adopt their own particular, well stated, point of view. No one seemed to convert another or be converted themselves. This was largely due to the ability to spot weak points in each other's argument. There was, not surprisingly, no coherence in the decisions that the team reached – or was forced to reach. Subsequent to the eventual failure of the team, finishing last in the exercise, the aftermath was marked by mutual recrimination. If having a team consisting of homogeneous people with respect to members' demographics, cognitions and high intellect does not create a successful group, then the obvious alternative would be to create groups of heterogeneous individuals. Scholars have carried out studies to investigate the various types of diversity within a group. Diversity differentiates individuals by the degree to which they are directly related to the task at hand. Job relatedness is one form of diversity and is an important property because it determines whether a particular type of diversity constitutes an increase in a group's total pool of task-related skills, information, and perspectives. The magnitude of this pool, in turn, represents a potential for more comprehensive or creative decision making. This concept has been studied by Milliken and Martins. The idea of having a diverse team to provide a wide spectrum of views has been used as a starting point to formulate teams. However, teams do not just happen when people get together. At the start, a team is just a collection of individuals. And, like most collections, it is only as strong as its weakest member. The optimum number of individuals within a team is a major issue for discussion when creating a team. This figure would to some extent depend on the amount of work that needs to be performed. In general the larger the group, the greater the unseen pressures that make for conformity. These pressures may impinge upon an individual to the extent that in mass meetings, congregations and assemblies they feel anonymous. Behaviour within the group is further complicated by group structure. The stronger the structure, the less tolerance there is for dissenters or for any form of deviant expression. Where groups are unstructured, for example large numbers of people meeting for a purpose but without any imposed constraints, studies have shown that rather than the individual recovering a sense of mature individuality, they are likely to revel in the anonymity which size offers. Investigations have discovered that large gatherings of people has the effect of either their constituents becoming excessively passive or, if full self-expression is permitted, inclined to irresponsible behaviour, aggressive verbal declarations, or even acts of destruction. In a team building situation this type of behaviour would clearly not promote the synergy and effectiveness that is sought after.